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Extra info for Ambient Intelligence: European Conference, AmI 2008, Nuremberg, Germany, November 19-22, 2008. Proceedings
Evaluating ubiquitous systems with users. In: AmI 2007: Workshop Proceedings of the European Conference on Ambient Intelligence, Darmstadt, Germany (2007) 18.
In the following the concept of human centered AmI, namely the explicit modeling of users, modeling the users’ behavior, and human services are discussed in detail. 1 Explicit Modeling of Users In the research ﬁeld of ubiquitous computing and AmI the user context model primarily consists of the user’s location and his social context. Recent studies, however, argue that modeling only the external context does not comply with the characteristics of humans in reality . Accordingly, an explicit modeling of the user separated from a general context model is discussed in the related literature [14,15].
4 Experimental Results and Method Comparisons In our experiments, we used a subset from the CMU facial expression database, containing 7 persons who are displaying 5 expressions: surprise, sadness, joy, disgust and anger. For dynamical facial expression recognition evaluation, we used the truncated trajectories, that is, the temporal sequence containing 9 frames, with the ﬁrst frame representing a ”subtle” facial expression (corresponding more or less with a ”half apex” state, see the left column of Figure 2) and the last one corresponding to the apex state of the facial expression (see the right column of Figure 2).