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''Preface the individuality of the physiological and behavioral features of humans is used to facilitate the identity or verification technique, and it usually ends up in right type. besides the fact that, the exact evidences received from a person don't warrantly a a hundred% matching to be played to the biometric features resembling one other topic, even after contemplating all Read more...

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D(c′n ) is not a permutation of D(c1 ), D(c2 ), . . , D(cn ) but ′ t n n knowledge of ( i=1 c′ iπ(i) / i=1 ctii )1/N is no more than 2−L + 2−L where L′ is the bit length of challenge in the ZK proof in [53]. Theorem 3 guarantees that if the shuffling verification is passed, the plaintexts encrypted in the output ciphertexts are permutations of the plaintexts encrypted in the input ciphertexts with an non-negligible probability. 5 Grouped Shuffling: a Trade-off to Improve Efficiency of Mix Networks Grouped shuffling is a mechanism to improve efficiency of mix networks without compromising its security in practice.

So, if a dishonest server reveals its shuffling, it makes no difference to the situation where this server performs re-encryption without permutation. Therefore, the only impact of this attack on the privacy of the shuffling of the whole mix network is to degrade the mix network to a mix network containing one fewer server. The shuffling of the other servers is not affected and can still provide strong privacy protection. • Diffusion of any single input: each input may be permuted to any of a set of k ǫ outputs with an equal probability, where ǫ is the number of honest servers.

Let ti for i = 1, 2, . . , n be random integers such that ti < 2L . If P r [ t1 , t2 , . . , tn ∈ {0, 1, . . , 2L − 1} | logg1 ni=1 yiti = logy ni=1 ziti ] > 2−L , then logg1 yi = logy zi for i = 1, 2, . . , n. Proof: P r [ t1 , t2 , . . , tn ∈ {0, 1, . . , 2L − 1} | logg1 ni=1 yiti = n logy i=1 ziti ] > 2−L implies that for any given integer v in {1, 2, . . , n} there must exist integers t1 , t2 , . . , tn and t′v in {0, 1, . . 4) Otherwise, for any (t1 , t2 , . . , tv−1 , tv+1 , . .

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