By Theodora Dragostinova

In 1900, a few 100,000 humans residing in Bulgaria―2 percentage of the country's population―could be defined as Greek, even if via nationality, language, or faith. The advanced identities of the population―proud heirs of historic Hellenic colonists, unswerving electorate in their Bulgarian fatherland, individuals of a much broader Greek diasporic neighborhood, religious fans of the Orthodox Patriarchate in Istanbul, and reluctant supporters of the Greek govt in Athens―became entangled within the becoming nationwide tensions among Bulgaria and Greece through the first half the 20 th century.

In Between Motherlands, Theodora Dragostinova explores the moving allegiances of this Greek minority in Bulgaria. assorted social teams contested the which means of the kingdom, shaping and reshaping what it intended to be Greek and Bulgarian throughout the sluggish and painful transition from empire to realms within the Balkans. In those many years, the zone used to be racked by way of a sequence of upheavals (the Balkan Wars, international struggle I, interwar inhabitants exchanges, international battle II, and Communist revolutions). The Bulgarian Greeks have been stuck among the competing agendas of 2 states more and more bent on setting up nationwide homogeneity.

Based on vast learn within the files of Bulgaria and Greece, in addition to fieldwork within the nations, Dragostinova indicates that the Greek inhabitants didn't blindly keep on with Greek nationalist leaders yet was once torn among identity with the land in their start and loyalty to the Greek reason. Many emigrated to Greece in keeping with nationalist pressures; others sought to keep up their Greek id and traditions inside Bulgaria; a few even switched aspects whilst it ideal their own pursuits. nationwide loyalties remained fluid regardless of kingdom efforts to mend ethnic and political borders through such capability as inhabitants activities, minority treaties, and stringent citizenship ideas. the teachings of a case corresponding to this proceed to reverberate at any place and every time states attempt to modify nationwide borders in areas lengthy inhabited via combined populations.

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Extra info for Between Two Motherlands: Nationality and Emigration among the Greeks of Bulgaria, 1900-1949

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Arthur Goldhammer (New York, 1996), 22. For a critical examination of the Greek and Turkish historiography, see Onur Yildirim, “The 1923 Population Exchange, Refugees and National Historiographies in Greece and Turkey,” East European Quarterly 40 (2006): 45–70. 35. Michael-Rolph Trouillot, Silencing the Past: Power and the Production of History (Boston, 1995), 152. 36. , Balkan Identities: Nation and Memory (New York, 2004). 37. Anthropologists have been at the fore of recovering versions of the past produced by non-historians.

This crisis between the Exarchate and the Patriarchate would continue to cause tensions not only between the two institutions but also 15. Pundeff, “Bulgarian Nationalism”; Crampton, Bulgaria, 91–93. 16. T. St. Burmov, Bâlgaro-grâtskata tsârkovna razpria (Sofia, 1902), 46. The Mixing and Unmixing of Bulgarians and Greeks | 23 between the Bulgarian and Greek states for the rest of the nineteenth and into the twentieth century. The Exarchate not only challenged Patriarchist influence among the Orthodox Christian subjects of the Ottoman Empire; it also asserted Bulgarian prerogatives in territories that the Greek Kingdom included in its program for territorial expansion, creating alarm among secular Greek leaders as well.

Detailed descriptions of actions against the Greek communities are Voulgaron energeiai pros katalisin tou kratous tis ellinikis ekklisias kai katastrophin tis ellinikis ethnotitos en te Anatoliki Romilia kai Voulgaria (Athens, 1908); and Episkopos Eirinoupoleos Photios, Episima engrapha kai istorikai simeioseis peri tis voulgarikis politikis kai ton voulgarikon kakourgion pros exontosin tou ellinismou tis Anatolikis Romilias 1878–1914 (Athens, 1919). 23 But in the nineteenth century, and especially with the clash between Bulgarian and Greek nationalists in the religious sphere, activists started defining the “community” more in national than religious terms.

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