By R Sattler

This ebook is an creation to biophilosophy, written essentially for the coed of biology, the working towards biologist, and the proficient layperson. It doesn't presuppose technical wisdom in biology or philosophy. although, it calls for a willingness to check the main easy foundations of biology that are so usually taken with no consideration. additionally, it issues to the bottomlessness of those foundations, the secret of lifestyles, the Unnamable .,. i've got attempted to additional the notice that organic statements are according to philosophical assumptions that are found in our minds even earlier than we input the laboratory. those assumptions, which frequently harbor robust commitments, are uncovered during the booklet. i've got attempted to teach how they impact concrete biolog­ ical examine in addition to our own lifestyles and society. hence, emphasis is put on the relationship among biophilosophy and organic learn at the one hand, and biophilosophy and the human situation at the other.

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It is often said that the new theory is more comprehensive than its predecessor; therefore it can explain and predict a wider range of phenomena. Does this mean that it comes closer to the truth, thus constituting progress? , they are so different in their conceptual framework and their domain of applicability that a comparison is impossible. How then is it possible to decide which one is better? It has been said that this whole question is misdirected because of the lack of comparison. 1. Characteristic of three paradigms (after Maruyama 1974, modified by John- son 1977).

A test of the odor hypothesis is confirmed. Thus 25 our temporary conclusion is that silver salmon find their way home by perceiving the distinctive odor of the river in which they hatched. The question that we have to ask now is whether this view of validation and the progress of science is tenable. My answer is again no. , the observed state of affairs, cannot necessarily be considered to be true. As I have mentioned already, facts also contain a hypothetical element, although they may be much less hypothetical than the hypothesis to be tested.

Evidently, tenacity can create a considerable obstacle to change and progress in science. , Kuhn 1977). , Hempel 1966, p. 52; but see also p. 54). In this way the unnecessary proliferation of too many competing hypotheses and theories is avoided. " Obviously both principles playa role in the scientific enterprise. It seems, however, that in many cases tenacity is stronger, especially with regard to the most fundamental theories including ways of thinking. As the number of contradictory facts increases, the likelihood that the theory will be given up also increases.

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