By Peter R. Whiteley (auth.)

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Thus pulverised icing will go into solution more easily than castor; and castor more readily than granulated. However, if biscuit spread is prevented by less sugar being in solution through using a coarser sugar, the texture will also be opened up. The texture of a biscuit can be controlled by aeration to counter this, but if the crystal size becomes too great and too concentrated, it will show up on the biscuit face and base. In the case of a flow type biscuit which contains sufficient sugar to spread considerably, and the baking is suitable to induce caramelisation and 'snap', then the addition of a coarse grained sugar will break up the surface of the biscuit into irregular fissures known as 'crack'.

Yeast is a microscopic, unicellular organism, that relies mainly 42 AERATING AGENTS 43 upon sugars in solution for life and reproduction. It is capable of breaking down sucrose and maltose into monosaccharides, and glucose and fructose into alcohol and carbon dioxide. When compressed yeast is added to a dough, the correct conditions for life and reproduction are available; the yeast feeds upon the sugars and produces carbon dioxide, which in turn aerates the dough. mainly used to bring about gluten modification and flavour development; the aeration that is achieved is of very minor importance, as the time between the dough passing through the last gauge roller until it reaches the oven is insufficient for any measurable amount of aeration.

As the melting point and nature of the fatty acid influences the melting point and nature of the fat, it follows that a fatty acid with a high melting point will produce a fat with a high melting point and vice versa. On the other hand, the melting point of a mixed glyceride will depend on the melting points of the fatty acids involved and the proportion of one to the other. The hard fatty acids with high melting points, which are chemically complete and stable, are known as saturated fatty acids.

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