By Alexander Diener, Joshua Hagen
From our earliest schooldays, we're proven the area as a colourful college of nations, each one outlined by way of their very own immutable borders. What we regularly do not realize is that each political boundary was once created by way of humans. No political border is extra usual or actual than one other, but a few overseas borders make no obvious experience in any respect. whereas targeting a few of these strange border shapes, this attention-grabbing booklet highlights the $64000 fact that all borders, even those who look "normal," are social structures. In an period the place the continuing relevance of the country kingdom is being puzzled and the place transnationalism is changing the measure to which borders successfully demarcate areas of belonging, the participants argue that this element is essential to our realizing of the area.
The special and compelling histories of a few of the world's oddest borders offer an incredible context for this team of specialists to supply available and enlightening discussions of cultural globalization, fiscal integration, foreign migration, imperialism, postcolonialism, international terrorism, nationalism, and supranationalism. every one author's local services enriches a textured account of the ancient context during which those borders got here into life in addition to their ancient and ongoing effect at the humans and states they bound.
To view extra maps from the David Rumsey Map assortment, stopover at www.davidrumsey.com.
Contributions by: Eric D. Carter, Karen Culcasi, Alexander C. Diener, Joshua Hagen, Reece Jones, Robert Lloyd, Nick Megoran, Julian V. Minghi, David Newman, Robert Ostergren, and William C. Rowe.
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Additional info for Borderlines and Borderlands: Political Oddities at the Edge of the Nation-State
Beyond the feelings of insecurity that result from the violent and lawless conditions, the most important issue for many of the enclave residents is land tenure. They face a constant threat from people who seize land in the enclaves by force, and there is no governing authority to legitimate property transactions. In the years after the partition, the residents would travel to Cooch Behar to buy and sell land. However, as the main political border between the two countries was normalized, securitized, and, more recently, fenced, this process became increasingly arduous.
The remaining families appear, under the circumstances, to live a fragile but relatively peaceful existence. Reliance on Neighboring Communities Relations with neighboring communities in Bangladesh have also improved partly because the residents of the enclaves have come to realize that they are completely dependent on the good will of their Bangladeshi neighbors to survive. The small size of most of the Indian enclaves means that the enclaves are not able to be self-sufficient in food production.
At that time, there were several violent riots in the Jalpaiguri district of India that targeted Muslim families who had decided to remain there. Because the official exchange program had ended a few years earlier, the only option for moving across the border was to exchange with Hindu families living in Indian enclaves. The land was still officially part of India, which allowed these families to get around the ban on exchanges between the two countries, and it was widely assumed that the land in the Indian enclaves would eventually join Pakistan.