By Dr Philippe Blondel C.Geol.,FGS, Ph.D., M.Sc., Professor Andrea Caiti (auth.)

Buried waste at the seabed is an important resource of pollutants. yet, quite often, waste websites aren't recognized till a major challenge happens, or aren't properly mapped. fresh examples round Europe contain WWI and WWII ammunition sell off websites (e.g. Beufort Dyke within the UK), dumped nuclear submarines within the Arctic Seas, clandestine or hidden toxic-waste within the Baltic Sea and the North Sea.. no matter if adequately documented, waste websites evolve with time (dumped fabric can circulate with currents and tides, specially on a scale of a long time; toxic-material barrels can corrode and leak). This booklet exhibits the result of a concerted EU-funded attempt to take on this challenge and locate cutting edge how you can establish and map poisonous waste websites ona the seabed, whether or not they were lined with sediments or now not. those effects are appropriate to any sector at the seabed within the complete world.

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Extra resources for Buried Waste in the Seabed—Acoustic Imaging and Bio-toxicity: Results from the European SITAR Project

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A scaling factor of approximately 10 : 1 was used in the design of the experiments. The targets were designed to match the numerical models used during the SITAR project (see Chapter 4) and the types of targets likely to be encountered at the trial site. The sediment types used in this study are silt (50-mm mean grain size) and gravel (5-mm mean grain size). The former are a scaled-down version of the soft muddy sediments, with a minute content of gas, expected at the sea trial site (as con®rmed later).

Yaw angle of box 19 . order to resemble those of the dumped ammunition barrels encountered in the ®eld trial. 1. 7 dB/ wavelength. The parameter values are representative of TNT explosive. The re¯ection coecient R is a function of the incidence angle inc ˆ inc …r† and possibly of frequency f , and it is de®ned as the re¯ection coecient of a transversally homogeneous layered medium with structure equal to that of the scatterer locally at r. The direction of incidence is de®ned as the direction of the intensity vector of the incident ®eld Ii , and the re¯ection coecient R…r† is 0 at points r on the surface S where Ii Á n…r† > 0 (noninsoni®ed points).

7) by their ray-theory approximations (Skogqvist and Karasalo, 2003). In the special case when r1 and r2 are located in adjacent homogeneous halfspaces, ray approximation is obtained in two steps. First, Fermat's principle is used to derive a fourth-degree polynomial equation for the position of the corner point of the two-segment eigenray from r1 to r2 . The corner point is then found by solving the fourth-degree equation with a fast iteration-free algorithm. The ray-theory approximation of g…r2 ; r1 † is then: g…r2 ; r1 † ˆ À T…k† e i…k1 R1 ‡k2 R2 † 4…r1 r2 † 1=2 …4:8† where k1 ; k2 are the wavenumbers in the two half-spaces and k is the horizontal wavenumber at propagation along the eigenray.

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