By Alex Lo

This publication explores the political elements of China's weather swap coverage, targeting the newly proven carbon markets and carbon buying and selling schemes. Lo makes a case for knowing the coverage switch when it comes to discourse and on the subject of narratives of nationwide energy and development.

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Extra resources for Carbon Trading in China: Environmental Discourse and Politics

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The British Petroleum (BP) took leadership in promoting emissions trading and even launched an in-house trial within the company, soon followed by key enterprises such as Shell and DuPont. Political Economy of Carbon Trading 21 These major companies had come to realise that, if some form of climate change regulation could not be prevented, emissions trading would be the most cost-effective and least damaging one, and therefore a relatively more acceptable option than its alternatives, such as carbon taxes.

It has ceased to operate from 2012 when the national-level CEF came into force, and has no sign of coming back when the carbon pricing programme of the CEF has collapsed. Although a number of US states and Canadian provinces have set up their own state-level or regional ETSs, national progresses remain sluggish. The fortunes of carbon trading in the LMEs prove to be a multimodal curve, with a series of ups and downs, and without showing a consistent pattern across the six countries. The claim that the liberal norms have made a big difference is open to question.

Traditional capitalist economies lose comparative advantages and become obsolete when domestic costs of labour, materials, healthcare, pollution, and so on increase, resulting in diminishing returns. As a response, a range of spatial fixes are deployed to identify new revenue streams and allow capital to accumulate in another space–time (Bumpus and Liverman, 2008; Knox-Hayes, 2010). Carbon markets can be viewed as a spatial fix, being organised to select cheaper opportunities for emissions reduction elsewhere when the costs of local efforts (given transaction costs) are higher.

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