By Marcello F. Di Carli, Martin J. Lipton
This textbook offers the reader with the main updated, sensible info at the perform of cardiac puppy and hybrid PET/CT. each one bankruptcy takes a step by step method of this rising expertise, from uncomplicated ideas of instrumentation, imaging, and protocols, to complex discussions of present and destiny medical functions. standpoint on different rising imaging modalities (e.g., MRI) and the relative function of every provides to the well-rounded process. a bit at the technical elements of cardiac puppy and PET/CT imaging directed to and written by way of technologists is integrated in addition. Molecular imaging ways which are more likely to play a scientific position sooner or later also are completely lined. A library of unique circumstances chosen by means of the editors and members completes the textual content through illustrating interpretation and technical demanding situations in cardiac puppy and hybrid PET/CT.
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Additional resources for Cardiac PET and PETCT Imaging
From a physics standpoint, the gated images are merely a set of independent images. However, the effective acquisition time per image is reduced by a factor equal to the number of frames, and thus the count density is very low. Beat rejection further reduces the acquired count density in cases with irregular heartbeat. To produce gated images of sufﬁcient quality, more total counts must be acquired to compensate for the division of counts over multiple frames. One approach is to use a larger injected dose, provided that the PET scanner does not exhibit excessive dead-time losses and that the randoms fraction is still acceptable.
Other useful options available at the console include various software programs for off-axis reformation of images and for 3D reconstructions of surfaces. These display programs offer a great deal of ﬂexibility in exploiting the 3D character of CT data and often enhance the interpretation of complex shapes. Recently introduced hardware options have resulted in computational speed improvements that enable many 3D display manipulations to be accomplished virtually in real time. For many years CT images were usually photographed with multiformat cameras to produce a standard 14-in × 17-in ﬁ lm with 16 or 20 images on a ﬁ lm.
For example, in 82Rb perfusion PET, there is signiﬁcant renal uptake that may affect imaging, even though the kidneys 16 Part I Instrumentation and Principles of Imaging most often are located entirely outside the axial ﬁeld of view. The renal activity is effectively shielded if axial septa are used; however, if 3D imaging without septa is performed, the added scatter and random counts may degrade image quality. Optimal Injected Activity In addition to the typical considerations of radiation dose to the patient and the anticipated scan time, the injected dose also should account for the performance characteristics of the speciﬁc scanner.