By Engin F. Isin

Via an in depth introductory dialogue of the relation among the civil and the political, and among attractiveness and illustration, this ebook offers a finished vocabulary for knowing citizenship. It makes use of the paintings of T H Marshall to border the severe interrogation of the way ethnic, technological, ecological, cosmopolitan, sexual and cultural rights relate to citizenship. The authors exhibit how the civil, political and social meanings of citizenship were redefined by means of postmodernization and globalization.

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The important conclusion to his argument is that 'through education in its relations with occupational structure, citizenship operates as an instrument of social stratification' (39). 'The claims of status are to a hierarchical wage structure, each level of which represents a social right and not merely a market value' (42). Thus, Marshall concludes that 'the preservation of economic inequalities has been made more difficult by the enrichment of the status of citizenship. There is less room for them, and there is more and more likelihood of their being challenged' (45).

Bourdieu argues that 'it is possible to deny the existence of classes as homogeneous sets of economically and socially differentiated individuals objectively constituted into groups, and to assert at the same time the existence of a space of differences based on a principle of economic and social differentiation' (Bourdieu, 1987: 3). In order to do so, Bourdieu makes a distinction between theoretical groups (or classes) and practical groups (or classes): the former is the work of symbolic or classification struggles while the latter is the result of the practical and political work of organizing and mobilizing.

As Marshall sees it, the differences among groups defined by this form of class 'emerge from the interplay of a variety of factors related to institutions of property and education and the structure of the national economy' (19). In contrast to the first type (class as social order or status), Marshall argued that citizenship did not conflict with a second type of class, which we might call 'modern class'. On the contrary, as we have discussed briefly above, civil and political rights were in fact necessary to the development of capitalism and its class system by giving each adult male the right to engage as an independent agent in economic struggle.

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