By Gianluca P. Parolin
The results of 5 years of in depth examine on citizenship within the Arab global, this quantity makes use of the multidisciplinary strategy of comparative felony stories so that it will give some thought to the multifaceted fact of nationality and citizenship. Gianluca P. Parolin brings jointly methodologies from fields as diversified as anthropology, linguistics, sociology, and political technological know-how, whereas exploring a extensive diversity of Western and Arab references accessed of their unique languages and assets, making in-text references and modern Arab laws available for the final reader.
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Extra resources for Citizenship in the Arab world: kin, religion and nation-state
Ready to wage war, Muslims headed for Mecca, but the city surrendered peacefully. Muhammad then circled the Kacbah seven times and solemnly proclaimed that ‘every claim of privilege, whether of blood or property’, was abolished (Montgomery Watt 1956: 261-302), while all the idols in the sanctuary were broken and the stone gods destroyed. The spread of Islam strategically accelerated in the second Medinan phase, especially after the successful political and military achievements against Mecca. Many tribes that had maintained a neutral stance up to that point deemed it necessary to side with the stronger, and – according to Arab custom – sent delegations (wufu¯d) to Muhammad in order to settle their adherence to Islam and to pay the ensuing tributary duties.
Some of these means were particularly effective in the political and legal context of a society characterised by diffuse power, and the emergence of a centralised power has therefore reduced their effectiveness, while others have lasted, even if some distinctions have faded. Kinship ‘Kinship’ is the main bond for the Arab kin group. Membership in the group is determined by descent from a real or fictitious common ancestor, and the group itself is known as banu¯ Fula¯n, ‘the sons of Tom’. The first and original member is identified as a sarı¯h (free, pure), in order to tell him apart from the client or the slave.
However, the person who led the threatened group was likely to retain a certain prestige among his peers, particularly if the group had been successful. Sources do not provide sufficient data to enable a precise delineation of the path taken by an individual to chieftainship, but their silence, occasionally broken by presumably legendary anecdotes, confirms that by nature it was a process by trial and error. Likewise, there is no record of any conferment of powers, which rather were concentrated in the hands of the leader and were later reabsorbed by the group.