By J. W. Larsen (auth.), Yuda Yürüm (eds.)

This quantity includes the lectures offered on the complex examine Institute on "Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Catalytic good gas Conversion for the construction of aean artificial Fuels" which used to be held at Ak~;ay, Edremit, Tiirkiye, among July 21 and August three, 1991. The ebook contains 23 chapters initially written for the assembly by way of distinct scientists an technologists within the box. l want to recognize the contribution of every of the authors within the ebook. Their efforts have make clear our realizing in coal technological know-how learn and higher usage of coal. 3 major matters: constitution and reactivity of coal; cleansing of coal and its items, and components affecting environmental stability of power utilization and recommendations for destiny, have been mentioned within the Institute and those are awarded less than six teams within the e-book. i am hoping that of serious use to investigate staff from educational and business history. the booklet should be many of us contributed to the good fortune of the Institute on which this quantity was once established. I take this social gathering to thank my colleagues who lectured within the Institute, either for his or her efforts throughout the weeks and their expertly ready lecture notes that reached to me in time. The Institute was once generously backed via the medical and Environmental Affairs Dh·ision of the NATO and their contribution is deeply acknowledged.

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The most probable rate controlling step at temperatures below the softening temperature of the coal (350"C) is diffusion. At higher temperatures the activation energy value indicates that chemical reactions are rate controlling. These controlling reactions could be the thermal cleavage of certain bonds in the coal (6), the transfer of hydrogen to coal radical (7) or even rehydrogenation of hydrogen donor solvent (8). It must also be recognized that coal dissolution or extraction is a complex process which includes not only dispersion, solution and depolymerization of coal components but also many secondary reactions of the solvent, such as, adduction repolymerization and isomerization which can distort the kinetic measurements obtained (9).

35 100 A '#. A A ; 80 ~ 60 & 40 s -~ ~ 0 u • A • A + 20 * ¥ 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Reaction time, hour Figure 1. Liquefaction of Taiheiyo coal at 3000C using tetralin (+), n-butylamine (~) and di-n-butylamine (x) and of 0-alkylated Taiheiyo coal using tetralin ( +) and n-butylamine (I). TE: tetrahydrofuran extractable material, [after Tagaya et al. (3)]. 100 '#. i ~ A • 80 s 60 & ·a 40 0 ~ 20 u A A A A 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 n-Butylamine in solvent, wt% Figure 2. Liquefaction of Taiheiyo coal at 300°C for 10 hr using the mixture of n-butylamine-tetraline (~) and n-butylamine-9,10-dihydroanthracene (+), [after Tagaya et al.

This is the chemical explanation of how much larger yields of volatile material are given by vitrinites on liquefaction than on pyrolysis. 6. Liquefaction Products and the Mechanism of Liquefaction Those liquefaction products obtained from the flowing solvent reactor which were soluble in hot tetralin but not in pentane, LPIP, comprised some 25-50% of the original fuel. Since retrogressive reactions have been minimised, the chemical structure of this material should be similar to that of the original fuel, as the infrared spectrum shown in Figure 5 illustrates, any differences being indicative of the chemistry of the liquefaction reactions.

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