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Extra info for Climate Change and the Oil Industry: Common Problems, Different Strategies (Issues in Environmental Politics)
1996). According to Young, international regimes evolve continuously in response to their own inner dynamics (Young, 1989: 95). Levy has labelled such dynamics of international environmental insti- 38 Climate change and the oil industry tutions as ‘tote-board diplomacy’ (Levy, 1993). According to this perspective, we can expect that, over time, joint commitments will become more stringent and governments as well as corporations more ambitious in implementing them. It is reasonable to assume that this process becomes more likely when the initial institutional arrangements have a narrow scope, include lenient commitments and possess institutional feedback mechanisms that encourage dynamic development.
Conversely, low demands and lenient policy will point in the direction of a reactive strategy. Political institutions linking demand and supply Western democratic political systems have two main channels for influencing decision-making by linking state and society: the numericaldemocratic channel, which includes voters, political parties and parliaments; and the corporative channel, in which non-governmental and governmental decision-makers meet to consult, collaborate and negotiate. The relative importance of each of these channels has traditionally been summed up in the phrase ‘votes count, but resources decide’ (Rokkan, 1966).
The same is true when it comes to capital availability. Kolk and Levy (2001) argue that low profitability may lead to a reorientation towards renewables. On the other hand, low profitability may also lead to caution concerning new and more risky investments. Human resource availability can be expected to be roughly equal for global companies operating in the same global market. However, there may be differences in in-house scientific and technological expertise that may influence the perception of causes as well as solutions to environmental problems characterised by scientific uncertainty.