By Nedeljko Cvejic, Tapio Seppanen
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Additional resources for Digital Audio Watermarking Techniques and Technologies: Applications and Benchmarks
Detailed illustration of other features can be found in Kirovski and Attias (2002). In order to embed spread spectrum WM imperceptibly, blocks with dynamic content are detected prior to watermark embedding. These blocks have some quiet parts and other parts rich in audio energy. Embedding watermarks into the quiet parts will result in audible distortion even is the amplitude of watermarks is low. The procedure of detecting the problematic audio data blocks is as follows: a. b. Kirovski et al. gradually and systematically developed a novel spread spectrum approach for audio signals.
In order to achieve the same signal-to-noise ratio, the FHSS system has to output more power than DSSS system. Since the carrier signal changes frequency from time to time, the sender and the receiver have to be tuned both in time and frequency, which makes synchronization a critical issue. Once it hops, it is very difficult, if not impossible for the receiver to resynchronize in case synchronization is lost. Before the receiver can be synchronized with the sender, it has to spend more time to search the signal and to lock on it in time and frequency.
An enhanced spread spectrum technique, which reduces the variance of the host signal and enhances watermark detection. This contribution will be further analyzed in a later section. Direct embedding of watermarks into the quantization indices instead of the MDCT coefficients, which saves processing time since no dequantization or requantization is necessary. Here a heuristic approach is used to select the indices and estimate the strength that those indices should be scaled to. Three steps are involved for the heuristic approach: 1.