By Jennifer Earl, Katrina Kimport
A lot awareness has been paid in recent times to the emergence of "Internet activism," yet students and pundits disagree approximately even if on-line political job is assorted in type from extra conventional varieties of activism. Does the worldwide achieve and blazing pace of the web impact the basic personality or dynamics of on-line political protest? In Digitally Enabled Social switch, Jennifer Earl and Katrina Kimport research key features of net activism and examine their affects on organizing and participation.Earl and Kimport argue that the internet bargains key affordances suitable to activism: sharply decreased charges for developing, organizing, and collaborating in protest; and the diminished want for activists to be bodily jointly in an effort to act jointly. Drawing on proof from samples of on-line petitions, boycotts, and letter-writing and e-mailing campaigns, Earl and Kimport express that the extra those affordances are leveraged, the extra transformative the alterations to organizing and collaborating in protest.
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Additional info for Digitally Enabled Social Change: Activism in the Internet Age (Acting with Technology)
Le Bon  1960; as also described in Garner 1997). Conversely, the speed with which political engagements could start and unfold, sometimes quite successfully from an activist point of view, suggested great potential for movements. Laura Gurak (1997) documented online campaigns against Lotus, Yahoo! S. governmental regulations that were remarkable in their speed, and two of these campaigns were successful in gaining the desired concessions from power holders. Just as the larger discourse on the relationship between Internet-enabled technologies and society moved toward moderation—identifying a much more complicated middle ground between salvation and an electronic apocalypse—so too did the literature on the political implications of ICT usage.
The event itself looked much like the March on Washington in 1963 for civil rights, albeit one coordinated more rapidly and at a lower cost, exemplifying scale-related changes stemming from Web usage. , Van Aelst and Walgrave 2002, 2004). The Web can be used to eliminate the traditional media as an intermediary and allow organizers to communicate directly with their target audiences. Dieter Rucht (2004), for example, argues that the Web, as a new media, can help SMOs reach their target audiences specifically by bypassing traditional media.
In general, scholars of both off- and online protest have faced significant challenges in developing ways to study protest success, and what about a social movement, protest action, or tactical form makes it more likely to be successful. We will return to the issue of success in chapter 4, but for now we note that it is likely to be a place, much as it is for scholars studying offline protest, where hard-and-fast answers prove elusive, even though anecdotes about successes and failures abound. Why Study E-tactics?