By Rosalind B. Brooke

The early historians of the Franciscan order traced the reasons of the concerns of the order of their time to Elias, a latest and buddy of St Francis and an early Minister common. Elias was once blamed for establishing how to all relaxations of self-discipline and disrespect of the founder's educating, and all conflicts and persecutions. Mrs Brooke exhibits that accountability can't be put on one guy, yet on a few of the early friars. She supplies a extra old account of Elias, exhibiting that he was once by no means as dominant a determine as has been intended. The early conflicts of the order are proven to were extra complicated, extra attention-grabbing and extra possible than the fourteenth-century controversialists may enable. the second one a part of the publication describes the achievements of Elias's successors as Minister common, and the $64000 legislation they handed. Mrs Brooke has been capable of reconstruct the early constitutions, now misplaced, in higher element than has formerly been tried.

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Introd. pp. H. ). 6 Cc. 61-6. 5 C. 18. 2 JORDAN OF GIANO 23 tures, or deficiency in observation or humour. His sketches of Nicholas the Humble and John of Piano Carpine1 are lifelike and delightful, but not one of the Ministers General (and he mentions them all) is honoured with a single adjective. His references to them are analogous to those recording the accessions of popes, emperors and kings in other thirteenth-century chronicles, and we must stifle the wish that he had said more, since it is a condition of his worth that he enlarges only upon what he knows well.

Tit. 1 Celano, it is suggested, was not a free agent, but had instructions from the Pope to praise his protege; or, if that motive will not serve, perhaps he sought to curry favour with one in a position to procure his advancement. Either of these imputations, if correct, would seriously damage Celano's reputation. Neither, however, need be accepted. They both proceed from a mistaken estimate of the relationship then existing between the principals. For, as will be shown in a later chapter, John Parenti was actually as well as theoretically the head of the Order, and Elias' sphere of control was limited to what concerned the Basilica.

D. Sparacio, 'S. Antonio di Padova e Frate Elia', Misc. Fr. xvn (1916), 16. % THOMAS OF ECCLESTON 35 say that the Chapter held at the time of the translation happened after Elias' return to power. ' clearly refers back and not forwards—after the general statement that the succession of Ministers was Elias, John Parenti, Elias, he interrupts the narrative to explain how this came about. He gives no dates, but implies the correct ones for John Parenti's period of office. The translation took place in 1230, and at the General Chapter held then John is rightly called the head of the Order; there is no mention of any election.

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