By S. Basu (auth.), Samarendra Basu Ph.D., James R. Millette Ph.D. (eds.)

Forensic, Occupational and Environmental health and wellbeing Sciences are id sciences facing legal and gentle societal difficulties for which scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with power dispersive x-rays (EDAX) and analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are delivering more and more definitive ideas. this can be really real within the zone of particulates. despite the fact that, electron microscopists operating independently in those 3 similar fields are frequently referred to as upon to spot particulates that have been good characterised by means of microscopists in a single of the opposite fields of analysis. trade of knowledge on particulate identity and methods for examining new strange samples has been tough among the 3 disciplines. for instance, automatic seek and identity of particulates has develop into a customary strategy in environmental and occupational healthiness. The process, notwithstanding, has but to discover its manner into forensic laboratories for research of gunshot residue debris. This quantity represents a starting for collaboration and alternate of rules among such parts of analysis with assorted pursuits yet related analytical difficulties. it truly is almost yes that this attempt also will curiosity different electron microscopists in a few novel medical issues of legal and societal relevance. the quantity provides full-length articles of a number of invited audio system and members on the "Forensic, Occupational and Environmental future health Sciences" Symposium held as part of the EMSA-MAS Joint Annual assembly, 5-9 August 1985, Louisville, Kentucky. prolonged 2-4 web page abstracts of those shows were released within the EMSA lawsuits (1985).

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Forensic Sci. Soc. , 22:267 (1982). 13. D. Maes and B. D. Pate, The spatial distribution of copper in individual human hairs, J. Forensic Sciences, 21:127 (1976). 14. L. Reimer, Electron--specimen interactions, Scanning Electron Microsc. II:1l1 (1979). 15. J. C. 2):10 (1979). i6. S. J. B. : "Microprobe Analysis", C. A. 53-81 (1973). 41 EVALUATION OF STAPLE IMPRESSIONS IN THE SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE* S. Basu New York State Police Crime Laboratory Albany, New York 12226 ABSTRACT When the driving force for stapling is optimal, the desk staplers produce characteristic impressions on the shoe-ends of staples and yield regular bends of the legs of the staple to form a permanent clinch.

The technique will be considered for routine hair comparison when more data is obtained on a larger population to make this assessment. Automated line scanning of hair will be considered along this line. Meanwhile an attempt will be made to determine if the increased trend of S away from the root of hair is corroborated by methods of bulk analysis. such as. atomic absorption and neutron activation. etc. 39 Conclusion The conventional microscopy test for hair comparison can be significantly aided with the uses of elemental parameters examined in the SEM-EDX.

An examination in a stereo microscope revealed that only one (41'2) staple was "100% round with sharp point", three (11'3,5,6) were "100% round" and the rest were "chisel points" (#1,4,7). These three forms of staples were used in seven staplers to derive the individual characteristics of impression due each stapler. Altogether, the weight of these characteristics was at least 2/3 or 67% of all possible defects. This evaluation was subjective, as it took into consideration equivalent weight (33%), due to each category of defects, namely, metal-lift, dents (or scratches) and microstriations.

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