By Charles Spielberger

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Extra resources for Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology Vol. I

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In such cases, users should be aware of the aids that exist to assist them in making informed choices. s0025 Achievement Tests One source of information about achievement tests is the various test publishers. Many publishers have online information available to help users gain a better understanding of the purposes, audiences, and uses of their products. Often, online information is somewhat limited and rather nontechnical. However, in addition to providing online information, many publishers will provide samples of test materials and technical documentation on request to potential users.

Following secondary schooling, achievement testing continues in colleges and universities, primarily in the s0010 Achievement Tests form of classroom achievement measures, but would also include standardized in-training examinations and board examinations for persons pursuing professional careers. Achievement testing has a long history in diverse occupational fields. Achievement tests are routinely administered to ascertain levels of knowledge or skills when screening or selecting applicants for positions in business and industry.

Goals contribute to achievement motivation because people pursuing goals persist and expend effort to succeed. As they work on the tasks, they evaluate their goal processes, and the belief that they are making progress sustains motivation. s0015 Achievement Motivation in Academics t0005 37 TABLE I Influences on Achievement Motivation Factors Personal Social Instructional Familial Cultural Sample influences Goals, outcome expectations, self-efficacy, values, attributions Peers, peer models, peer networks Planning, decision making, instructional grouping, interactions, activities, classroom climate Socioeconomic status, capital, guidance Educational emphasis, social orientation But goals actually are less important than their properties: specificity, proximity, and difficulty.

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