By Gunnar Randers (auth.), G. Lindner, K. Nyberg (eds.)
Chemistry and its items at the present time play an enormous position in just about all business ac tivities. Chemistry has captured our houses. we're provided with new articles in an ever-increasing circulation. New makes use of are being stumbled on. previous items disappear. carrying on with and quick enlargement is predicted for the chemical in its right experience. the cause of this is often, in fact, that chemistry has created items which meet necessities that we give some thought to pressing or which in several methods make paintings more uncomplicated, and make us extra effective, thereby expanding our way of life in a large feel: by way of cash, extra spare time, social defense, greater schooling and higher public future health providers. yet a excessive way of life additionally implies a great dwelling surroundings. loads of what has been performed in praiseworthy aspiration of a higher technique of help and an im proved lifestyle has concerned a losing of non-renewable ordinary assets. the goods themselves or their waste items may well pose a hazard to the goals we're attempting to attain.
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Extra resources for Environmental Engineering: A Chemical Engineering Discipline
4. TRANSPORT Once a number of sites with suitable utility supply have been found the problems of raw materials supply and transport of the finished goods have to be studied. If large quantities of minerals are needed, freight plays an important role. g. KNAUFF seaports. Freight cost for large quantities of basic cheap chemicals such as sulphuric or hydrochloric acid, chlorine or hydrogen may either exclude a special site or render their production on the spot necessary, which increases the investment cost and risk.
Its price largely depends upon the price of fuel and its handling cost. Figure 2 shows how the prices of fuel oil, hard coal and lignite, expressed in DMjGcal, developed after 1945. It explains why areas with abundant hard coal deposits such as the Ruhr area have lost much of their attractiveness as sites for chemical plants. Fuel oil has to a considerable extent replaced coal. Unfortunately its price has increasingly become subject to political influences. Governmental authorities in the producing, the processing, and the consuming countries want to levy as much taxes thereon as possible and sometimes even restrict exploitation.
GOVERNMENT INFLUENCE For obvious reasons governments and local authorities try to influence the investor's choice of the site by promising investment subsidies and fiscal advantages. One should however, not forget that they are only given to compensate local disadvantages and for a limited time only while natural disadvantages, such as lack of water, insufficient infrastructure, or large distance from the market, may last much longer. 2. The Influence of Size As to the size of a plant it should be, generally speaking, such as to allow operation in a profitable way.