By Vincenzo Armenio (auth.), Vincenzo Armenio, Sutanu Sarkar (eds.)
Stratified flows, universal in environmental and geophysical functions, are char acterized through the adaptation of fluid density within the vertical path which may lead to qualitative and quantitative changes of the movement styles by way of buoyancy . risky stratification (dense water/air above gentle water/air) raises the ver tical blending by way of iteration of convective cells whereas sturdy stratification as a rule suppresses vertical blending of mass and momentum. however, a stably stratified fluid can aid inner waves, instabilities and turbulence that play a severe function in shipping and combining. the sea is predominantly topic to good stratification which, below exter nal excitation, helps an atmosphere of inner waves which can then holiday and generate turbulence. Wind forcing, currents and convective plumes are different assets of turbulence within the ocean. within the ocean, stratified turbulence mediates the upward delivery of backside water, meals, chemical and organic species, and toxins. within the surroundings, stratification impacts the shipping of pollution published at flooring point, a severe challenge being the thermal inversion in city components that factors the stagnation of pollution and small particulate (PM2.5 to PMIO) within the reduce a part of the atmospheric boundary layer. In structures, strat ification governs the circulate of air and warmth in typical air flow systems.
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Extra info for Environmental Stratified Flows
For complex geometry, a re-visit at ion of the filtered NSE, in curvilinear coordinates has been performed by Jordan (1999). The author has shown that is possible to perform filtering in the computational space (that is a rectangular box with uniform grid spacing in all directions) provided that the contravariant fiuxes (instead of the velocity components) and the metric terms are filtered. Such approach requires the construction of contravariant quantities, their filtering in the computational space and to go back to the physical velocity components.
This implies that, if one captures the large scales accurately, the model has just to be able to drain and to dissipate energy coming down from those scales, and it does not need to be very sophisticated (and CPU-time consuming). In the past, this point has lend justification to a very crude approach of using a dissipative numerical scheme, in conjunction with a not resolved DNS, leaving to the numerical dissipation the role of dissipating the energy coming from the large scales. Unfortunately, the use of a dissipative numerical scheme affects the energy spectrum well above the cut-off, and it causes a wrong decay of turbulent kinetic energy in the inertial range.
1994), that, in the present case gave unphysical profiles of the turbulent quantities when the BL was subjected to large negative heat flux at the bottom surface (corresponding to rapid cooling of the surface).