By Michael A. Mancano, Jason C. Gallagher
Usually Prescribed medicinal drugs: medicines you must recognize is a realistic learn device designed to coach and try out scholars concerning the medicinal drugs which are most ordinarily utilized in perform, in addition to a necessary reference on drug info for health and wellbeing pros. This accomplished source experiences vital thoughts concerning the use of particular drugs and offers transparent and succinct details for the medication which are usually used in medical perform, ambulatory perform, and health center perform, together with details on prescription, over the counter, and normal items.
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Extra resources for Frequently Prescribed Medications
Glucophage C. Micronase D. Actos 2. What is the correct dose of sitagliptin in a patient with type 2 diabetes and moderate renal dysfunction (CrCl ~40 ml/minute) A. 100 mg once daily B. 50 mg once daily C. 25 mg once daily D. Not recommended in patients with moderate renal dysfunction 3. Which of the following insulins should be administered 15 minutes prior to a meal? A. Insulin NPH B. Insulin glargine C. Insulin detemir D. indd 21 4. Which antidiabetic mediation has the potential to cause the rare but serious side effect of lactic acidosis?
Mechanism of Action for the Drug Class Isoniazid inhibits the synthesis of mycolic acids, an essential component of the mycobacterial cell wall. Rifampin 24 inhibits the synthesis of RNA by preventing the action of RNA polymerase. Its activity is not specific to mycobacteria. indd 25 • Active and latent tuberculosis, treatment of asymptomatic carriers of Neisseria meningitides, synergistic therapy for Gram-positive infections (such as endocarditis) with other antibiotics Dosing • 600 mg IV or PO every 24 hours • Hepatic adjustment: °Â° In patients with moderate to severe hepatic dysfunction, consider reducing the dose or extending the dosing interval Adverse Reactions: Most Common • Nausea, vomiting, cramps, rash, fever, drowsiness, elevated liver function tests DRUG CLASS: ANTIMYCOBACTERIAL AGENTS Dosage Forms Adverse Reactions: Rare/Severe/Important • Hypersensitivity, hyperbilirubinemia, thrombocytopenia Major Drug Interactions Drugs Affecting Rifampin • Antacids: May reduce absorption of rifampin • Cotrimoxazole: May increase the levels of rifampin • Isoniazid or halothane: Potentiate hepatotoxicity Rifampin’s Effect on Other Drugs • Rifampin is a potent inducer of many hepatic enzymes, particularly of the cytochrome P450 system.
Dosage should be based on ideal or adjusted body weight, not total body weight ■■ Tobramycin ■■ Neomycin-Polymyxin B Brand Name Neosporin Generic Name Neomycin-polymyxin B Dosage Forms Topical: Ointment, cream Usage • Minor skin infections Dosing • Apply to affected area three to four times daily Brand Names Tobrex, Tobi (inhalation) Adverse Reactions: Most Common Generic Name • Local irritation Tobramycin Counseling Points Dosing • Do not use for deep wounds, puncture wounds, animal or human bites, or serious burns • Do not apply to the eyes • Cover treated area with a gauze or bandage • See a healthcare provider if the wound does not begin to heal in a few days • IV: Same as gentamicin • Inhalation: 300 mg every 12 hours Usage • IV: Same as gentamicin • Inhalation: Given to improve pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis by decreasing bacterial colony counts Key Points • Neomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic.