By Gregory R. Witkowski, Arnd Bauerkämper
This quantity examines philanthropic practices opposed to the backdrop of the continuities, disruptions and adjustments in 20th century German socio-political kinfolk. It provides a differentiated realizing of the connection among philanthropy and civil society that lines this connection from Germany’s first democracy, the Weimar Republic, during the Nazi dictatorship and Soviet-style rule in Communist East Germany to the sturdy democracy of the Federal Republic of Germany. whereas targeting Germany, this quantity locations German philanthropy in a triangular dating with the us and the constructing international, basically via Africa. specifically, the contributions to the e-book reveal that regardless of many transatlantic exchanges among German and American philanthropic businesses, those relationships shouldn't be lowered to bilateral exchanges yet fairly obvious within the context of a globalizing global. extra usually, this transnational research is a reminder that philanthropic actions must be positioned into their particular ancient contexts. Such an analytical framework makes it possible for extra dynamic figuring out of the which means of philanthropy in society, illustrating either enduring and altering practices.
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Extra resources for German Philanthropy in Transatlantic Perspective: Perceptions, Exchanges and Transfers since the Early Twentieth Century
The Internal Revenue Code grants a blanket exception from private foundation status to certain types of organizations, including hospitals and colleges and universities, regardless of income structure and establishes a number of “tests” to ferret out broadly supported organizations (public charities) from single donor-supported organizations (private foundations). Thus, the US. law fails to spell out a comprehensive positive legal definition. Instead tax regulation relies on various tests and exceptions to single out those “foundation-like” charitable organizations that Congress found in need of more stringent regulation and lesser tax privileges.
For example, many German foundations, like the Volkswagen Foundation to name but one, would fit there as well. However, many more would not. Consider the Bertelsmann Foundation, which as an operating institution runs its own projects and programs and is, as such, much more akin to other operating nonprofits than their grantmaking counterparts. Likewise, the prominent historical heritage of operating foundations that emerged from the medieval hospital or hospice foundation are foundations that comfortably fit into the nonprofit sector circle, but that do not seem to fit into the philanthropy (as just defined) or the innermost foundation circle at all.
The importance of foundations in an open society. ), The future of foundations in an open society (pp. 17–29). Gütersloh: Verlag Bertelsmannstiftung. Römer, M. (1990). Die Eignung der GmbH als Rechtsform für Stiftungszwecke. Dissertation, University of Giessen. Salamon, L. , Anheier, H. , Sokolowski, S. , & Associates. (1999). Global civil society: Dimensions of the nonprofit sector. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies. Seifart, W. (1988). Einiges über Stiftungen in den USA.