By A S Grandison, M J Lewis

From the Editors' Preface This ebook concentrates at the newer equipment and strategies for keeping apart meals parts and items of the biotechnology undefined. each one bankruptcy bargains with a particular variety or sector of software and comprises info at the easy rules, commercial gear to be had, advertisement functions, and an summary of present learn and improvement. a lot of the emphasis is on extraction of macromolecules, expanding the further worth of meals and convalescing important elements from by-products and fermentation media. the various tools mentioned at the moment are in advertisement perform, whereas others are being vigorously researched. Separation and filtration know-how is of significant significance in nutrients processing and biotechnology. This new booklet presents a really certain exam of crucial, complex separation methods now in use. every one bankruptcy is ready by means of a expert or experts within the form of separation mentioned. every one separation approach is expounded to sensible advertisement purposes.

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From the Editors' Preface This e-book concentrates at the more moderen tools and methods for isolating meals parts and items of the biotechnology undefined. every one bankruptcy offers with a particular variety or zone of program and comprises info at the simple rules, business gear to be had, advertisement purposes, and an outline of present learn and improvement.

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5 Fractionation of high-value oils and fats Butterfat Milk fat contains fatty acids representing a wide range of molecular weight and unsaturation. The acid residues are distributed in a ‘random’ fashion in the constituent triglyceride oils. g. cry stallisation - see Chapter 8) are unable to effectively concentrate a short chain acid fraction (C4-Cl0) since these acids are combined in the triglyceride structure with higher molecular weight acids (C14, C16, CIS) which have a controlling influence on the separation.

To illustrate these effects the solubility of naphthalene is shown in Fig. 6(a) as a function of temperature and pressure. At constant temperature the solubility increases with pressure in accord with the simple picture of increasing solvation through increasing solvent density. Above about 150 bar the solubility increases with temperature as expected but at lower pressures this ‘normal’ trend is reversed and the solubility then declines with increasing temperature. This behaviour, which appears anomalous at first sight, can be explained in terms of the high thermal expansivity of the SCF in the lower pressure domain.

To achieve good separation between stages it would be necessary to continue the extraction at each pressure until equilibrium was approached and the rate of removal of components began to level off. The separation vessel would then have to be emptied, which could involve halting the extraction. This would clearly give rise to a very protracted process. A simple solution to this problem is to introduce the fractionation at the separation stage of the process by using a cascade of separation vessels as shown in Fig.

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