By Ralph W. Richardson

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Another feature of the user charge that makes it appear advantageous to economists is that once the bargaining process has established the base and the rate for charges, the imposition of the charge and the amount of the payment no longer rest on political bargaining, as with regulation, but operate in an impersonal manner. This automatic mechanism precludes tax avoidance, or relaxing of penalties, because of the unequal political or economic bargaining strength of the polluter. Examples of user charges include effluent charges, water charges, sewage treatment charges, and user charges for public recreation.

Definition of Water Quality Objectives Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (FWPCA), as amended by the Federal Water Quality Act of 1965, states were largely free to designate different uses and corresponding target levels of water quality for different 40 7. Water Resources stretches of water, and to allocate accordingly the burdens of waste reduction among dischargers, consistent with certain minimum standards of treatment. Within limits, the carriage and assimilation of wastes were recognized as legitimate uses of receiving waters.

Another feature of the user charge that makes it appear advantageous to economists is that once the bargaining process has established the base and the rate for charges, the imposition of the charge and the amount of the payment no longer rest on political bargaining, as with regulation, but operate in an impersonal manner. This automatic mechanism precludes tax avoidance, or relaxing of penalties, because of the unequal political or economic bargaining strength of the polluter. Examples of user charges include effluent charges, water charges, sewage treatment charges, and user charges for public recreation.

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