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This booklet presents the 1st try and degree eu enterprise functionality over the 20th Century. The book's findings, be sure and tell greatly held assumptions relating to enterprise functionality - relating to process and constitution, possession and keep an eye on, outdated and new industries, rising and complex economies.
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Extra info for The performance of European business in the twentieth century
5). Belgium, in particular, hosted some of the most proﬁtable companies in the 1920s (with Soﬁna, Forges de la Providence, and Union Minière), the 1950s (Banque Nationale and Union Minière), and at the end of the century (Colruyt and Petroﬁna), just as Spain did most notably before the start of the First World War (with the mining companies Rio Tinto and Tharsis, together with Banco de España) and at mid-century (again with Banco de España). A host of Swedish and Finnish ﬁrms fared comparably well in the 1950s (LKAB) and in 2000 (Nokia, Skanska, Ericsson, UPM-Kymmene, Volvo, and Electrolux).
The problem is that there is no general agreement about what business performance actually means. 15 From a macroeconomic perspective, performance tends to be measured in terms of productivity growth. For others, performance is best assessed by a ﬁrm’s innovative capacity. Performance can also be measured in a more qualitative or even subjective way, using such criteria as job creation—a major issue for trade unions—or contribution to national greatness. At a ﬁrm level, performance can be deﬁned according to four broad criteria.
3. 73 Source: The Performance of European Business, Small Sample Chandlerian ﬁrms during theirs (the second half). On the other hand, returns were consistently low in public utilities, though they regained momentum in the late 1990s. The knowledge industries, which are present only in the later benchmark years, showed signiﬁcantly high returns. These general trends are conﬁrmed, complemented, and explained by looking at the subsectors. Returns were regularly high in banking and in insurance and commercial activities during the last quarter of the century.